Effectiveness of control measures for the red kite

Project title: Carrying out field research to test the effectiveness of preventative measures to reduce the mortality risk at wind turbines


  • Planning and approval of wind turbines
  • Reducing the collision risk for large bird species
  • Evaluation of control and diversionary measures
  • Recommendations for practice


FÖA Landschaftsplanung GmbH
Auf der Redoute 12, 54296 Trier
Dr. Jochen Lüttmann
Tel.: +49 651 91048-0


FKZ 3517 86 0200
Departmental Research Plan 2017
Term: 01.03.2018 – 28.02.2021


The project aims to optimise the planning and approval process for wind turbines and to minimise the risk to bird species sensitive to wind turbines. A field studies-based evaluation will be made of the effectiveness of various mitigation measures for birds of prey of relevance to planning, particularly the red kite.

There is an increased conflict potential between the interests of species conservation and the expansion of wind energy over large parts of the red kite's range. When planning and approving wind energy projects, the occurrence of a significantly increased mortality risk, particularly for collision-prone large species of birds at risk from wind power, must be prevented (Section 44(1) BNatSchG). A range of proposed measures has been included in the approval process to date.

The main aim of the research project is to minimise uncertainties about the effectiveness of the measures and to close the species protection and legally relevant gaps in knowledge when operationalising preventative measures as part of the approval process for wind turbines. The overall aim of the research project is to optimise the planning and approval procedures and to minimise the risk and the adverse effects on the affected species (birds of prey sensitive to wind turbines, particularly the red kite), by using field studies to

  • Research control measures via targeted adaptation of the farming methods;
  • Research the attractive effect due to various farming practices (particularly mowing/harvesting and ploughing) with a particular focus on the duration and spatial extent of the effect;
  • Achieve a technical evaluation of the effectiveness and suitability of the mitigation measures studied;
  • Produce a detailed study, both for the complex of control or diversionary measures and also for temporary limitations to operating times for agricultural management practices;
  • Produce practical recommendations for nature conservation-related implementation and design of the measures and the necessary conditions, for example for approval.


The key component of the project is in-house field research on the spatial usage behaviour and on relevant environmental variables (e.g. land use and land management) that are carried out in the various research areas with differing ecological conditions. The planned surveys are carried out as repeated random samples in two study years using the two mutually supporting approaches of satellite telemetry (individual focus) and land use observation (area focus).

Further information

Work packages

Work packages

  1. Planning the research design
  2. Surveying the relevant species, their habitat use and relevant environmental variables
  3. Evaluation, documentation and expert discussion of the interim results and the method after the first study year
  4. Repeat study in the second year of the field study
  5. Evaluation, documentation and reflection on the field research for the second study year
  6. Summary analysis of all the results, evaluation and development of recommendations for planning, formulation of links for further research projects/further research requirements, networking with other activities
  7. Expert discussion of the key project results and publication

Project partners

Project partners

Project management

FÖA Landschaftsplanung GmbH
Auf der Redoute 12, 54296 Trier
Dr. Jochen Lüttmann
Tel.: +49 651 91048-0

Project partners

ÖKOTOP GbR – Büro für angewandte Landschaftsökologie
Willy-Brandt-Str. 44, 06110 Halle (Saale)
Ubbo Mammen
Tel.: +49 345 686 9884

Funding authority

Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN)
FG II 4.3 Nature conservation and renewable energies
Alte Messe 6, 04103 Leipzig
Nora Köcher
Tel.: +49 341 30977 166

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